Risk concentrations refer to clusters of the same or similar risk drivers within specific risk types (intra-risk concentrations in credit, market, operational, liquidity and other risks) as well as across different risk types (inter-risk concentrations). They could occur within and across counterparties, businesses, regions/countries, industries and products. The management of concentrations is integrated as part of the management of individual risk types and monitored on an ongoing basis. The key objective is to avoid any undue concentrations in the portfolio, which is achieved through a quantitative and qualitative approach, as follows:
- Intra-risk concentrations are assessed, monitored and mitigated by the individual risk disciplines (credit, market, operational, liquidity risk management and others). This is supported by limit setting on different levels and/or management according to risk type.
- Inter-risk concentrations are managed through quantitative top-down stress-testing and qualitative bottom-up reviews, identifying and assessing risk themes independent of any risk type and providing a holistic view across the bank.
The most senior governance body for the oversight of risk concentrations throughout 2017 was the Enterprise Risk Committee (ERC), which is a subcommittee of the Group Risk Committee (GRC).
Risk Type Diversification Benefit
The risk type diversification benefit quantifies diversification effects between credit, market, operational and strategic risk in the economic capital calculation. To the extent correlations between these risk types fall below 1.0, a risk type diversification benefit results. The calculation of the risk type diversification benefit is intended to ensure that the standalone economic capital figures for the individual risk types are aggregated in an economically meaningful way.