Diversification of our funding profile in terms of investor types, regions, products and instruments is an important element of our liquidity risk management framework. Our most stable funding sources come from capital markets and equity, retail, and transaction banking clients. Other customer deposits and secured funding and short positions are additional sources of funding. Unsecured wholesale funding represents unsecured wholesale liabilities sourced primarily by our Treasury Pool Management. Given the relatively short-term nature of these liabilities, they are primarily used to fund cash and liquid trading assets.
To promote the additional diversification of our refinancing activities, we hold a Pfandbrief license allowing us to issue mortgage Pfandbriefe. In addition, we have established a program for the purpose of issuing Covered Bonds under Spanish law (Cedulas).
Unsecured wholesale funding comprises a range of unsecured products, such as Certificates of Deposit (CDs), Commercial Paper (CP) as well as term, call and overnight deposits across tenors primarily up to one year.
To avoid any unwanted reliance on these short-term funding sources, and to promote a sound funding profile, which complies with the defined risk appetite, we have implemented limits (across tenors) on these funding sources, which are derived from our daily stress testing analysis. In addition, we limit the total volume of unsecured wholesale funding to manage the reliance on this funding source as part of the overall funding diversification.