Credit risk arises from all transactions where actual, contingent or potential claims against any counterparty, borrower, obligor or issuer (which we refer to collectively as “counterparties”) exist, including those claims that we plan to distribute. These transactions are typically part of our non-trading lending activities (such as loans and contingent liabilities) as well as our direct trading activity with clients (such as OTC derivatives). These also include traded bonds and debt securities. Carrying values of equity investments are also disclosed in our Credit Risk section. We manage the respective positions within our market risk and credit risk frameworks.
Based on the annual risk identification and materiality assessment, Credit Risk is grouped into five categories, namely default/ migration risk, country risk, transaction/ settlement risk (exposure risk), mitigation (failure) risk and concentration risk.
- Default/Migration Risk is the risk that a counterparty defaults on its payment obligations or experiences material credit quality deterioration increasing the likelihood of a default.
- Country Risk is the risk that otherwise solvent and willing counterparties are unable to meet their obligations due to direct sovereign intervention or policies.
- Transaction/Settlement Risk (Exposure Risk) is the risk that arises from any existing, contingent or potential future positive exposure.
- Mitigation Risk is the risk of higher losses due to risk mitigation measures not performing as anticipated.
- Concentration Risk is the risk of an adverse development in a specific single counterparty, country, industry or product leading to a disproportionate deterioration in the risk profile of Deutsche Bank’s credit exposures to that counterparty, country, industry or product.
We measure, manage/mitigate and report/monitor our credit risk using the following philosophy and principles:
- Our credit risk management function is independent from our business divisions and in each of our divisions, credit decision standards, processes and principles are consistently applied.
- A key principle of credit risk management is client credit due diligence. Our client selection is achieved in collaboration with our business division counterparts who stand as a first line of defense.
- We aim to prevent undue concentration and tail-risks (large unexpected losses) by maintaining a diversified credit portfolio. Client, industry, country and product-specific concentrations are assessed and managed against our risk appetite.
- We maintain underwriting standards aiming to avoid large undue credit risk on a counterparty and portfolio level. In this regard we assume unsecured cash positions and actively use hedging for risk mitigation purposes. Additionally, we strive to secure our derivative portfolio through collateral agreements and may additionally hedge concentration risks to further mitigate credit risks from underlying market movements.
- Every new credit facility and every extension or material change of an existing credit facility (such as its tenor, collateral structure or major covenants) to any counterparty requires credit approval at the appropriate authority level. We assign credit approval authorities to individuals according to their qualifications, experience and training, and we review these periodically.
- We measure and consolidate all our credit exposures to each obligor across our consolidated Group on a global basis, in line with regulatory requirements.
- We manage credit exposures on the basis of the “one obligor principle” ” (as required under CRR Article 4(1)(39)), under which all facilities to a group of borrowers which are linked to each other (for example by one entity holding a majority of the voting rights or capital of another) are consolidated under one group.
- We have established within Credit Risk Management – where appropriate – specialized teams for deriving internal client ratings, analyzing and approving transactions, monitoring the portfolio or covering workout clients.
- Where required, we have established processes to report credit exposures at legal entity level.