Our Treasury function manages solvency, capital adequacy and leverage ratios at Group level and locally in each region. Treasury implements our capital strategy, which itself is developed by the Group Risk Committee and approved by the Management Board, including issuance and repurchase of shares and capital instruments, hedging of capital ratios against foreign exchange swings, limit setting for key financial resources, design of shareholders’ equity allocation, and regional capital planning. We are fully committed to maintaining our sound capitalization both from an economic and regulatory perspective. We continuously monitor and adjust our overall capital demand and supply in an effort to achieve an appropriate balance of the economic and regulatory considerations at all times and from all perspectives. These perspectives include book equity based on IFRS accounting standards, regulatory and economic capital as well as specific capital requirements from rating agencies.
Treasury manages the issuance and repurchase of capital instruments, namely Common Equity Tier 1, Additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital instruments. Treasury constantly monitors the market for liability management trades. Such trades represent a countercyclical opportunity to create Common Equity Tier 1 capital by buying back our issuances below par.
Our core currencies are Euro, US Dollar and Pound Sterling. Treasury manages the sensitivity of our capital ratios against swings in core currencies. The capital invested into our foreign subsidiaries and branches in the other non-core currencies is largely hedged against foreign exchange swings. Treasury determines which currencies are to be hedged, develops suitable hedging strategies in close cooperation with Risk Management and finally executes these hedges.
In connection with MREL and TLAC requirements, we review our issuance portfolio of senior bonds to make them eligible under bail-in rules. We intend to comply with potential requirements as they become effective.
Resource Limit Setting
Usage of key financial resources is influenced through the following governance processes and incentives.
Target resource capacities are reviewed in our annual strategic plan in line with our CET 1 and Leverage Ratio ambitions. In a quarterly process, the Group Risk Committee approves divisional resource limits for Total Capital Demand and leverage exposure that are based on the strategic plan but adjusted for market conditions and the short-term outlook. Limits are enforced through a close monitoring process and an excess charging mechanism.
Overall regulatory capital requirements are driven by either our CET 1 ratio (solvency) or leverage ratio (leverage) requirements, whichever is the more binding constraint. For the internal capital allocation, the combined contribution of each segment to the Group’s Common Equity Tier 1 ratio, the Group’s Leverage ratio and the Group’s Capital Loss under Stress are weighted to reflect their relative importance and level of constraint to the Group. Contributions to the Common Equity Tier 1 ratio and the Leverage ratio are measured though Risk-Weighted Assets (RWA) and Leverage Ratio Exposure (LRE) assuming full implementation of CRR/CRD 4 rules. The Group’s Capital Loss under Stress is a measure of the Group’s overall economic risk exposure under a defined stress scenario. In our performance measurement, our methodology also applies different rates for the cost of equity for each of the business segments, reflecting in a more differentiated way the earnings volatility of the individual business models. This enables improved performance management and investment decisions.
Regional capital plans covering the capital needs of our branches and subsidiaries across the globe are prepared on an annual basis and presented to the Group Investment Committee. Most of our subsidiaries are subject to legal and regulatory capital requirements. In developing, implementing and testing our capital and liquidity, we fully take such legal and regulatory requirements into account.
Further, Treasury is represented on the Investment Committee of the largest Deutsche Bank pension fund which sets the investment guidelines. This representation is intended to ensure that pension assets are aligned with pension liabilities, thus protecting our capital base.