Key risk categories include 1) financial risks such as credit risk (counterparty risk, industry risk, country risk and product risk), market risk (trading, non-trading and traded default risk), liquidity risk, business risk (including tax and strategic risk), and 2) non-financial risks (NFRs) including reputational risk and operational risk (with important sub-categories compliance risk, legal risk, model risk, information security risks, fraud risks, and money laundering risks). We manage the identification, assessment and mitigation of top and emerging risks through an internal governance process and the use of risk management tools and processes. Our approach to identification and impact assessment aims to ensure that we mitigate the impact of these risks on our financial results, long term strategic goals and reputation. Please refer to section for detailed information on the management of our material risks.
As part of our regular risk and cross-risk analysis, sensitivities of the key portfolio risks are reviewed using a bottom-up risk assessment and through a top-down macro-economic and political scenario analysis. This two-pronged approach allows us to capture not only risks that have an impact across our risk inventories and business divisions but also those that are relevant only to specific portfolios.
Current portfolio-wide risks on which we continue to focus include: the economic slowdown and financial market volatility in China and potential contagion to other economies, the impact of the ongoing slump in oil prices on key producing countries and related industries and the potential increases in interest rates by the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, which could drive further capital outflows from Emerging Markets. In addition, global geopolitical risks remain elevated and have intensified in recent months.
Our credit exposure from the Oil & Gas sector accounts for less than 2 % of our total main credit exposure and approximately € 16 billion, of which gross loans account for € 5 billion and irrevocable lending commitments account for € 8 billion. In our view we do not have over-sized concentrations in Emerging Markets countries. Our China credit portfolio is mainly with systemically important local Financial Institutions, financially strong state-owned, privately owned corporates and subsidiaries of Multinational Companies. More information is included in section.
The assessment of the potential impacts of these risks is made through integration into our group-wide stress tests which assess our ability to absorb these events should they occur. The results of these tests showed that we currently have adequate capital and liquidity reserves to absorb the impact of these risks if they were to materialize in line with the tests’ parameters. Information about risk and capital positions for our portfolios can be found in the section.
Consistent with prior years, the year 2015 continued to demonstrate the trend of increasing global regulation of the financial services industry, which we view as likely to persist through the coming years. We are focused on identifying potential political and regulatory changes and assessing the possible impact on our business model and processes.
The overall focus of Risk and Capital Management throughout 2015 was on maintaining our risk profile in line with our risk strategy, increasing our capital base and supporting our strategic management initiatives with a focus on balance sheet optimization. This approach is reflected across the different risk metrics summarized below.