Impact of Changes in Accounting Principles

 (unaudited)

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

The following are those accounting pronouncements which are relevant to the Group and which have been applied in the preparation of these condensed consolidated interim financial statements.

IAS 32

On January 1, 2014, the Group adopted the amendments to IAS 32, “Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (“IAS 32 R”). IAS 32 R clarifies (a) the meaning of an entity’s current legally enforceable right of set-off; and (b) when gross settlement systems may be considered equivalent to net settlement. IAS 32 R did not have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements.

IFRIC 21

On January 1, 2014, the Group adopted IFRIC 21, “Levies”, an interpretation of IAS 37 “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets”, which clarifies that an entity recognises a liability for a levy only when the activity that triggers payment, as identified by the relevant legislation, occurs. IFRIC 21 did not have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements.

New Accounting Pronouncements

Improvements to IFRS 2010-2012 and 2011-2013 Cycles

In December 2013, the IASB issued amendments to multiple IFRS standards, which resulted from the IASB’s annual improvement projects for the 2010-2012 and 2011-2013 cycles. They comprise amendments that result in accounting changes for presentation, recognition or measurement purposes as well as terminology or editorial amendments related to a variety of individual IFRS standards. The amendments will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements. The amendments have yet to be endorsed by the EU.

IFRS 9 Classification and Measurement, Impairment and Hedge Accounting

In July 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 9, which replaces IAS 39, “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement”. IFRS 9 introduces new requirements for how an entity should classify and measure financial assets, requires changes to the reporting of ‘own credit’ with respect to issued debt liabilities that are designated at fair value, replaces the current rules for impairment of financial assets and amends the requirements for hedge accounting.

Classification and Measurement of financial assets and liabilities
IFRS 9 requires that an entity’s business model and a financial instrument’s contractual cash flows will determine its classification and therefore its measurement in the financial statements. Upon assessment each financial asset will be classified as either fair value through profit or loss (‘FVTPL’), amortised cost, or fair value through Other Comprehensive Income (‘FVOCI’). As these requirements are different than the assessments under the existing IAS 39 rules, some differences to classification and measurement of financial assets are to be expected.

The classification and measurement of financial liabilities remain largely unchanged under IFRS 9 from current requirements. However, where issued debt liabilities are designated at fair value, the fair value movements attributable to an entity’s own credit risk will be recognized in Other Comprehensive Income rather than in the Statement of Income under IFRS 9.

Impairment of financial assets
The impairment rules under IFRS 9 will apply to those financial assets that are measured at amortised cost and debt instruments measured at FVOCI. Impairment will move from a model whereby credit losses are recognized when a ‘trigger’ event occurs under IAS 39 to an expected loss model, where provisions are taken upon initial recognition of the financial asset based on expectations of potential credit losses at that time.

The allowance for credit losses provided for on initial recognition will be based on a 12-month expected credit loss basis. Subsequently, should the probability of default of the issuer increase significantly, the expected credit loss of the financial asset over its lifetime (‘lifetime expected losses’) will be recognized as an additional provision. As a result of the changes to impairment rules, IFRS 9 will result in an increase in subjectivity as provisions will be based on forward-looking, probability-weighted information that is continuously monitored and incorporated over the life of the financial asset. This is in contrast to impairment recognition that is based on credit events that have already occurred under IAS 39. IFRS 9 is expected to result in an increase in the overall level of impairment allowances, due to the likelihood that there will be a larger population of financial assets to which lifetime expected losses applies as compared to the population of financial assets for which credit events have already occurred under IAS 39.

Hedge accounting
IFRS 9 also incorporates new hedge accounting rules that intend to align hedge accounting with risk management practices. Generally, some restrictions under current rules have been removed and a greater variety of hedging instruments and hedged items become available for hedge accounting.

IFRS 9 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018. The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 9. The standard has yet to be endorsed by the EU.

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

In May 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 15, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, which specifies how and when revenue is recognised, but does not impact income recognition related to financial instruments in scope of IFRS 9/IAS 39. IFRS 15 replaces several other IFRS standards and interpretations that currently govern revenue recognition under IFRS and provides a single, principles-based five-step model to be applied to all contracts with customers. The standard also requires entities to provide users of financial statements with more informative and relevant disclosures. IFRS 15 will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2017. The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 15. The standard has yet to be endorsed by the EU.

Improvements to IFRS 2012-2014 Cycles

In September 2014, the IASB issued amendments to multiple IFRS standards, which resulted from the IASB’s annual improvement project for the 2012-2014 cycle. This comprises amendments that result in accounting changes for presentation, recognition or measurement purposes as well as terminology or editorial amendments related to a variety of individual IFRS standards. The amendments will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016, with earlier application permitted. The group is currently assessing the impact that the amendments will have on the Group’s consolidated financial statements. The amendments have yet to be endorsed by the EU.