Liquidity reserves amounted to € 188 billion as of September 30, 2014 (compared with € 196 billion as of December 31, 2013), which generated a positive liquidity stress result as of September 30, 2014 (under the combined scenario).
Total equity as of September 30, 2014 increased by € 15.1 billion compared to December 31, 2013. The main factors contributing to this development were a capital increase of € 8.5 billion from the issuance of 359,8 million new common shares in June 2014 and the issuance of new additional equity components (Additional Tier 1 securities, treated as equity according to IFRS) of € 3.5 billion on May 20, 2014. Further contributing to the increase were net income attributable to Deutsche Bank shareholders of € 1.2 billion, positive effects from exchange rate changes of € 2.1 billion (especially in the U.S. dollar) and unrealized net gains on financial assets available for sale of € 763 million, which mainly resulted from improved market prices of debt securities from European issuers. Partly offsetting were cash dividends paid to Deutsche Bank shareholders of € 765 million.
Starting January 1, 2014, the calculation of our regulatory capital and capital ratios incorporates the capital requirements following the Capital Requirements Regulation and Capital Requirements Directive 4, subject to certain transitional rules. Therefore when referring to the results according to the transitional rules we use the term “CRR/CRD 4”. When referring to the results according to the full application of the final envisaged framework we use the term “CRR/CRD 4 fully loaded”. In some cases, CRR/CRD 4 left in place unchanged transitional rules that had been adopted in earlier capital adequacy frameworks through Basel 2.5 regarding the risk weighting of certain categories of assets. These include rules permitting the grandfathering of equity investments at a risk-weight of 100 % and allowing the selection of the greater position of long and short positions as the basis for measurement in the Market Risk Standardized Approach rather than the sum of both long and short positions. In these cases, our CRR/CRD 4 methodology assumes that the impact of the expiration of these transitional rules will be mitigated through sales of the underlying assets or other measures prior to the expiration of the grandfathering provisions.
Tier 1 capital according to CRR/CRD 4 as of September 30, 2014 was € 62.7 billion, € 10.9 billion higher than at the end of 2013, resulting in a CRR/CRD 4 Tier 1 capital ratio of 15.5 % as of September 30, 2014, up from 14.6 % at December 31, 2013. Common Equity Tier 1 capital according to CRR/CRD 4 increased in the first nine months of 2014 by € 7.9 billion to € 59.6 billion, resulting in a CRR/CRD 4 Common Equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 14.7 % as of September 30, 2014, compared with 14.6 % at the end of 2013.
The increase in our Tier 1 capital in the first nine months of 2014 resulted mainly from a capital increase from authorized capital against cash contributions with gross proceeds of € 8.5 billion and the placement of CRR/CRD 4 compliant Additional Tier 1 Notes (the “AT1 Notes”) with an equivalent value of € 3.5 billion, both transactions completed in the second quarter of 2014. Our net income attributable to Deutsche Bank shareholders of € 1.2 billion in the first nine months of 2014, decreased by our dividend accrual of € 846 million, also contributed to the increase. These increases were partially offset by the derecognition of a further 10 % of our Legacy Hybrid Tier 1 instruments that are being phased out during the transitional period with a value of € 1.3 billion per year. We saw further negative impacts on our Tier 1 capital and Common Equity Tier 1 capital as a result of capital deductions that are being phased in at a rate of 20 % per year, including a deduction of deferred tax assets of € 624 million and a deduction of defined benefit pension fund assets of € 156 million. These amounts were not deducted at year-end 2013. Common Equity Tier 1 capital and Tier 1 capital were also negatively impacted by an adjustment made to an asset in the NCOU.
Our fully loaded CRR/CRD 4 Tier 1 capital as of September 30, 2014 was € 49.5 billion, € 15.5 billion higher than at year end 2013, resulting in a fully loaded CRR/CRD 4 Tier 1 capital ratio of 12.3 % as of September 30, 2014, up from 9.7 % at December 31, 2013. Our fully loaded CRR/CRD 4 Common Equity Tier 1 capital increased in the first nine months of 2014 by € 12.0 billion to € 46.0 billion, resulting in a fully loaded CRR/CRD 4 Common Equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 11.5 % as of September 30, 2014, compared with 9.7 % at the end of 2013.
The main increasing impact on Tier 1 capital came from the two capital issuance transactions in the first half of 2014 with a total volume of € 12.0 billion, therein € 8.5 billion in Common Equity Tier 1 capital. The increasing effects from the authorized capital issuance had in addition a positive effect on our Common Equity Tier 1 capital related thresholds resulting in a decrease of threshold dependent capital deductions for direct, indirect and synthetic holdings by the institution of the CET 1 instruments of financial sector entities where the institution has a significant investment in those entities as well as deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences (10/15 % rule).
Risk-weighted assets according to CRR/CRD 4 were € 404 billion as of September 30, 2014, € 104 billion (34.6 %) higher than at the end of 2013 according to Basel 2.5 rules, largely reflecting the impact of the CRR/CRD 4 framework as well as technical impacts from the aforementioned capital increases. Risk-weighted assets for credit risk increased in the first nine months of 2014 by € 48.8 billion, mainly driven by the implementation of the CRR/CRD 4 framework as well as FX impacts and Model updates. Additionally, the new calculation of risk-weighted assets for the CVA according to the CRR/CRD 4 framework added € 18.6 billion to the overall increase. Risk-weighted assets for market risk increased by € 24.4 billion mainly driven by the inclusion of former capital deduction items for higher risk securitization positions into the risk-weighted asset calculation according to the CRR/CRD 4 framework. The overall RWA increase of € 12.2 billion for operational risk was mainly driven by our early recognition of enhancements to our Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) model in the second quarter which led to additional RWA of € 7.7 billion.