40 – Structured Entities

Nature, purpose and extent of the Group’s interests in structured entities

The Group engages in various business activities with structured entities which are designed to achieve a specific business purpose. A structured entity is one that has been set up so that any voting rights or similar rights are not the dominant factor in deciding who controls the entity. An example is when voting rights relate only to administrative tasks and the relevant activities are directed by contractual arrangements.

A structured entity often has some or all of the following features or attributes:

  • Restricted activities;
  • A narrow and well defined objective;
  • Insufficient equity to permit the structured entity to finance its activities without subordinated financial support;
  • Financing in the form of multiple contractually linked instruments to investors that create concentrations of credit or other risks (tranches).

The principal uses of structured entities are to provide clients with access to specific portfolios of assets and to provide market liquidity for clients through securitizing financial assets. Structured entities may be established as corporations, trusts or partnerships. Structured entities generally finance the purchase of assets by issuing debt and equity securities that are collateralized by and/or indexed to the assets held by the structured entities. The debt and equity securities issued by structured entities may include tranches with varying levels of subordination.

Structured entities are consolidated when the substance of the relationship between the Group and the structured entities indicate that the structured entities are controlled by the Group, as discussed in Note 1 “Significant Accounting Policies and Critical Accounting Estimates”.

Consolidated structured entities

The Group has contractual arrangements which may require it to provide financial support to the following types of consolidated structured entities.

Securitization vehicles

The group uses securitization vehicles for funding purchase of diversified pool of assets. The group provides financial support to these entities in the form of liquidity facility. As of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, there were outstanding loan commitments to these entities for € 2 billion and € 6 billion respectively.

Funds

The group may provide funding and liquidity facility or guarantees to funds consolidated by the group. As of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013 notional value of the liquidity facilities and guarantees provided by the group to such funds was € 28 billion and € 27 billion.

Unconsolidated structured entities

These are entities which are not consolidated because the Group does not control them through voting rights, contract, funding agreements, or other means. The extent of the Group’s interests to unconsolidated structured entities will vary depending on the type of structured entities.

Below is a description of the Group’s involvements in unconsolidated structured entities by type.

Repackaging and investment entities

Repackaging and investment entities are established to meet clients’ investment needs through the combination of securities and derivatives. These entities are not consolidated by the Group because the Group does not have power to influence the returns obtained from the entities. These entities are usually set up to provide a certain investment return pre-agreed with the investor, and the Group is not able to change the investment strategy or return during the life of the transaction.

Third party funding entities

The Group provides funding to structured entities that hold a variety of assets. These entities may take the form of funding entities, trusts and private investment companies. The funding is collateralized by the asset in the structured entities. The group’s involvement involves predominantly both lending and loan commitments.

The vehicles used in these transactions are controlled by the borrowers where the borrowers have the ability to decide whether to post additional margin or collateral in respect of the financing. In such cases, where borrowers can decide to continue or terminate the financing, the borrowers will consolidate the vehicle.

Securitization Vehicles

The Group establishes securitization vehicles which purchase diversified pools of assets, including fixed income securities, corporate loans, and asset-backed securities (predominantly commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities and credit card receivables). The vehicles fund these purchases by issuing multiple tranches of debt and equity securities, the repayment of which is linked to the performance of the assets in the vehicles.

The Group often transfers assets to these securitization vehicles and provide financial support to these entities in the form of liquidity facilities.

The Group also invests and provides liquidity facilities to third party sponsored securitization vehicles.

The securitization vehicles that are not consolidated into the Group are those where the Group does not hold the power or ability to unilaterally remove the servicer or special servicer who has been delegated power over the activities of the entity.

Funds

The Group establishes structured entities to accommodate client requirements to hold investments in specific assets. The Group also invests in funds that are sponsored by third parties. A group entity may act as fund manager, custodian or some other capacity and provide funding and liquidity facilities to both group sponsored and third party funds. The funding provided is collateralized by the underlying assets held by the fund.

The Group does not consolidate funds when Deutsche Bank is deemed agent or when another third party investor has the ability to direct the activities of the fund.

Other

These are Deutsche Bank sponsored or third party structured entities that do not fall into any criteria above. These entities are not consolidated by the Group when the Group does not hold power over the decision making of these entities.

Income derived from involvement with structured entities

The Group earns management fees and, occasionally, performance-based fees for its investment management service in relation to funds. Interest income is recognized on the funding provided to structured entities. Any trading revenue as a result of derivatives with structured entities and from the movements in the value of notes held in these entities is recognized in ‘Net gains/losses on financial assets/liabilities held at fair value through profit and loss’.

Interests in unconsolidated structured entities

The Group’s interests in unconsolidated structured entities refer to contractual and non-contractual involvement that exposes the group to variability of returns from the performance of the structured entities. Examples of interests in unconsolidated structured entities include debt or equity investments, liquidity facilities, guarantees and certain derivative instruments in which the Group is absorbing variability of returns from the structured entities.

Interests in unconsolidated structured entities exclude instruments which introduce variability of returns into the structured entities. For example, when the group purchases credit protection from an unconsolidated structured entity whose purpose and design is to pass through credit risk to investors, the Group is providing the variability of returns to the entity rather than absorbing variability. The purchased credit protection is therefore not considered as an interest for the purpose of the table below.

Maximum Exposure to unconsolidated structured entities

The maximum exposure to loss is determined by considering the nature of the interest in the unconsolidated structured entity. The maximum exposure for loans and trading instruments is reflected by their carrying amounts in the consolidated balance sheet. The maximum exposure for derivatives and off balance sheet commitments such as guarantees, liquidity facilities and loan commitments under IFRS 12, as interpreted by the Group, is reflected by the notional amounts. Such amounts do not reflect the economic risks faced by the Group because they do not take into account the effects of collateral or hedges nor the probability of such losses being incurred. At December 31, 2014, the notional related to the positive and negative replacement values of derivatives and off balance sheet commitments were € 301 billion, € 615 billion and € 32 billion respectively.

At December 31, 2013, the notional related to the positive and negative replacement values of derivatives and off balance sheet commitments were € 311 billion, € 529 billion and € 27.3 billion respectively.

Size of structured entities

The Group provides a different measure for size of structured entities depending on their type. The following measures have been considered as appropriate indicators for evaluating the size of structured entities:

  • Funds – Net asset value or asset under management where the Group holds fund units and notional of derivatives when the Group’s interest comprises of derivatives.
  • Securitizations – notional of notes in issue when the Group derives its interests through notes its holds and notional of derivatives when the Group’s interests is in the form of derivatives.
  • Third party funding entities – Total assets in entities
  • Repackaging and investment entities – Fair value of notes in issue

For Third party funding entities, size information is not publicly available, therefore the Group has disclosed the greater of the collateral Deutsche Bank has received/pledged or the notional of the exposure Deutsche Bank has to the entity.

The following table shows, by type of structured entity, the carrying amounts of the Group’s interests recognized in the consolidated statement of financial position as well as the maximum exposure to loss resulting from these interests. It also provides an indication of the size of the structured entities. The carrying amounts presented below do not reflect the true variability of returns faced by the Group because they do not take into account the effects of collateral or hedges.

Carrying amounts and size relating to Deutsche Bank’s interests

 

Dec 31, 2014

in € m.

Repackaging and Investment Entities

Third Party Funding Entities

Securiti­zations

Funds

Total

1

Includes € 13 million of Cash and due from banks.

Assets

0

0

0

0

 

Interest-earning deposits with banks

0

131

0

405

419

Central bank funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements

0

0

0

1,599

1,599

Securities Borrowed

0

0

0

17,367

17,367

Total financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

1,292

6,875

21,282

65,934

95,384

Trading assets

963

4,315

21,108

13,419

39,805

Positive market values (derivative financial instruments)

329

703

143

8,789

9,963

Financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss

0

1,858

31

43,726

45,616

Financial assets available for sale

0

410

875

1,418

2,703

Loans

77

32,553

16,250

15,671

64,551

Other assets

11

87

2,280

21,447

23,824

Total assets

1,380

39,938

40,687

123,842

205,846

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities

0

0

0

0

 

Total financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

225

626

579

16,968

18,398

Negative market values (derivative financial instruments)

225

626

579

16,968

18,398

Total liabilities

225

626

579

16,968

18,398

Off-balance sheet exposure

3

3,064

1,268

27,699

32,035

Total

1,158

42,376

41,375

134,572

219,483

 

 

 

 

 

 

Size of structured entity

10,938

98,197

3,044,623

3,695,476

 

 

Dec 31, 2013

in € m.

Repackaging and Investment Entities

Third Party Funding Entities

Securiti­zations

Funds

Total

1

Prior year numbers were restated in 2014 to exclude € 29.4 billion pending settlements which were disclosed in Other assets and have been removed from the Group’s definition of an Interest.

Assets

0

0

0

0

 

Interest-earning deposits with banks

0

0

0

303

303

Central bank funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements

0

0

0

1,797

1,797

Securities Borrowed

0

0

0

6,819

6,819

Total financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

1,830

3,097

26,180

89,365

120,472

Trading assets

1,216

2,586

26,002

12,949

42,753

Positive market values (derivative financial instruments)

600

175

169

7,640

8,584

Financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss

15

336

9

68,776

69,136

Financial assets available for sale

3

414

2,279

867

3,564

Loans

101

27,978

13,406

6,153

47,639

Other assets1

0

47

546

7,869

8,461

Total assets

1,935

31,536

42,412

113,173

189,056

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities

0

0

0

0

 

Total financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

471

85

223

8,836

9,615

Negative market values (derivative financial instruments)

471

85

223

8,836

9,615

Total liabilities

471

85

223

8,836

9,615

Off-balance sheet exposure

0

2,135

1,104

24,064

27,304

Total

1,464

33,587

43,293

128,401

206,745

 

 

 

 

 

 

Size of structured entity

20,771

74,278

1,665,626

4,488,622

 

Trading assets – Total trading assets as of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013 of € 39.8 billion and € 42.8 billion are comprised primarily of € 21.1 billion and € 26 billion in Securitizations and € 13.4 billion and € 12.9 billion in Funds structured entities respectively. The Group’s interests in securitizations are collateralized by the assets contained in these entities. Where the Group holds Fund units these are typically in regards to market making in funds or otherwise serve as hedges for notes issued to clients. Moreover the credit risk arising from loans made to Third party funding structured entities is mitigated by the collateral received.

Financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss – Reverse repurchase agreements to Funds comprise the majority of the interests in this category and are collateralized by the underlying securities.

Loans – Loans as of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013 consists of € 64.6 billion and € 47.6 billion investment in securitization tranches and financing to Third Party Funding Entities. The Group’s financing to Third Party funding entities is collateralized by the assets in those structured entities.

Other assets – Other assets as of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013 of € 23.8 billion and € 8.4 billion, respectively, consists primarily of prime brokerage receivables and cash margin balances.

Financial Support

Deutsche Bank did not provide non-contractual support during the year to unconsolidated structured entities.

Sponsored Unconsolidated Structured Entities where Deutsche Bank has no interest as of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013.

As a sponsor, Deutsche Bank is involved in the legal set up and marketing of the entity and supports the entity in different ways, namely:

  • transferring assets to the entities
  • providing seed capital to the entities
  • providing operational support to ensure the entity’s continued operation
  • providing guarantees of performance to the structured entities.

Deutsche Bank is also deemed a sponsor for a structured entity if market participants would reasonably associate the entity with the Group. Additionally, the use of the Deutsche Bank name for the structured entity indicates that Deutsche Bank has acted as a sponsor.

The gross revenues from sponsored entities where the Group did not hold an interest as of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013 were € 166 million and € 527 million respectively. Instances where the Group does not hold an interest in an unconsolidated sponsored structured entity include cases where any seed capital or funding to the structured entity has already been repaid in full to the Group during the year. This amount does not take into account the impacts of hedges and is recognized in Net gains/losses on financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit and loss. The aggregated carrying amounts of assets transferred to sponsored unconsolidated structured entities in 2014 were € 469 million for securitization and € 1.9 billion for repackaging and investment entities. In 2013, they were € 3.2 billion for securitization and € 3.7 billion for repackaging and investment entities.


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