37 – Derivatives

Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities

Derivative contracts used by the Group include swaps, futures, forwards, options and other similar types of contracts. In the normal course of business, the Group enters into a variety of derivative transactions for both trading and risk management purposes. The Group’s objectives in using derivative instruments are to meet customers’ risk management needs and to manage the Group’s exposure to risks.

In accordance with the Group’s accounting policy relating to derivatives and hedge accounting as described in Note 1 “Significant Accounting Policies and Critical Accounting Estimates”, all derivatives are carried at fair value in the balance sheet regardless of whether they are held for trading or nontrading purposes.

Derivatives held for Trading Purposes

Sales and Trading

The majority of the Group’s derivatives transactions relate to sales and trading activities. Sales activities include the structuring and marketing of derivative products to customers to enable them to take, transfer, modify or reduce current or expected risks. Trading includes market-making, positioning and arbitrage activities. Market-making involves quoting bid and offer prices to other market participants, enabling revenue to be generated based on spreads and volume. Positioning means managing risk positions in the expectation of benefiting from favorable movements in prices, rates or indices. Arbitrage involves identifying and profiting from price differentials between markets and products.

Risk Management

The Group uses derivatives in order to reduce its exposure to market risks as part of its asset and liability management. This is achieved by entering into derivatives that hedge specific portfolios of fixed rate financial instruments and forecast transactions as well as strategic hedging against overall balance sheet exposures. The Group actively manages interest rate risk through, among other things, the use of derivative contracts. Utilization of derivative financial instruments is modified from time to time within prescribed limits in response to changing market conditions, as well as to changes in the characteristics and mix of the related assets and liabilities.

Derivatives qualifying for Hedge Accounting

The Group applies hedge accounting if derivatives meet the specific criteria described in Note 1 “Significant Accounting Policies and Critical Accounting Estimates”.

Fair Value Hedge Accounting

The Group enters into fair value hedges, using primarily interest rate swaps and options, in order to protect itself against movements in the fair value of fixed-rate financial instruments due to movements in market interest rates.

 

Dec 31, 2014

Dec 31, 2013

in € m.

Assets

Liabilities

Assets

Liabilities

Derivatives held as fair value hedges

3,679

2,136

2,810

200

For the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, a gain of € 1.0 billion, a loss of € 2.4 billion and a loss of € 0.1 billion, respectively, were recognized on the hedging instruments. For the same periods, the results on the hedged items, which were attributable to the hedged risk, were a loss of € 1.3 billion, a gain of € 1.7 billion and a loss of € 0.4 billion.

Cash Flow Hedge Accounting

The Group enters into cash flow hedges, using interest rate swaps, equity index swaps and foreign exchange forwards, in order to protect itself against exposure to variability in interest rates, equities and exchange rates.

 

Dec 31, 2014

Dec 31, 2013

in € m.

Assets

Liabilities

Assets

Liabilities

Derivatives held as cash flow hedges

234

0

30

276

Periods when hedged cash flows are expected to occur and when they are expected to affect the income statement

in € m.

Within 1 year

1–3 years

3–5 years

Over 5 years

As of December 31, 2014

 

 

 

 

Cash inflows from assets

23

35

5

0

Cash outflows from liabilities

(21)

(35)

(28)

(25)

Net cash flows 2014

2

0

(23)

(25)

As of December 31, 2013

 

 

 

 

Cash inflows from assets

80

110

53

136

Cash outflows from liabilities

(25)

(37)

(37)

(36)

Net cash flows 2013

55

73

16

100

Cash Flow Hedge Balances

in € m.

Dec 31, 2014

Dec 31, 2013

Dec 31, 2012

1

Reported in equity refers to accumulated other comprehensive income as presented in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income.

Reported in Equity1

118

(215)

(341)

thereof relates to terminated programs

(15)

(16)

(17)

Gains (losses) posted to equity for the year ended

(6)

91

42

Gains (losses) removed from equity for the year ended

(339)

(35)

(45)

Ineffectiveness recorded within P&L

(3)

1

1

In early June 2014, the decision was taken to replace the external debt financing of Maher Terminals, with financing from within the Group taken effect at maturity at the beginning of July 2014. Until then it was the Group’s largest cash flow hedge accounting program. In line with the hedge accounting rules of IAS 39, this decision triggered the transfer of € 313 million of accumulated mark-to-market loss on a swap transaction relating to that debt financing from other comprehensive income to the profit and loss statement during the second quarter.

As of December 31, 2014 the longest term cash flow hedge matures in 2022.

Net Investment Hedge Accounting

Using foreign exchange forwards and swaps, the Group enters into hedges of translation adjustments resulting from translating the financial statements of net investments in foreign operations into the reporting currency of the parent at period end spot rates.

 

Dec 31, 2014

Dec 31, 2013

in € m.

Assets

Liabilities

Assets

Liabilities

Derivatives held as net investment hedges

490

2,927

1,171

141

For the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, losses of € 357 million, € 320 million and € 357 million, respectively, were recognized due to hedge ineffectiveness which includes the forward points element of the hedging instruments.