Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
The following are those accounting pronouncements which are relevant to the Group and which have been adopted during 2014 in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements.
On January 1, 2014, the Group adopted the amendments to IAS 32, “Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (“IAS 32 R”). IAS 32 R clarifies (a) the meaning of an entity’s current legally enforceable right of set-off; and (b) when gross settlement systems may be considered equivalent to net settlement. IAS 32 R did not have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements.
On January 1, 2014, the Group adopted IFRIC 21, “Levies”, an interpretation of IAS 37 “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets”, which clarifies that an entity recognizes a liability for a levy only when the activity that triggers payment, as identified by the relevant legislation, occurs. IFRIC 21 did not have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements.
New Accounting Pronouncements
The following accounting pronouncements were not effective as of December 31, 2014 and therefore have not been applied in preparing these financial statements.
Improvements to IFRS 2010-2012 and 2011-2013 Cycles
In December 2013, the IASB issued amendments to multiple IFRS standards, which resulted from the IASB’s annual improvement projects for the 2010-2012 and 2011-2013 cycles. They comprise amendments that result in accounting changes for presentation, recognition or measurement purposes as well as terminology or editorial amendments related to a variety of individual IFRS standards. The amendments will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements.
IFRS 9 Classification and Measurement, Impairment and Hedge Accounting
In July 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 9, which replaces IAS 39, “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement”. IFRS 9 introduces new requirements for how an entity should classify and measure financial assets, requires changes to the reporting of ‘own credit’ with respect to issued debt liabilities that are designated at fair value, replaces the current rules for impairment of financial assets and amends the requirements for hedge accounting.
Classification and Measurement of financial assets and liabilities
IFRS 9 requires that an entity’s business model and a financial instrument’s contractual cash flows will determine its classification and measurement in the financial statements. Upon initial recognition each financial asset will be classified as either fair value through profit or loss (‘FVTPL’), amortized cost, or fair value through Other Comprehensive Income (‘FVOCI’). As these requirements are different than the assessments under the existing IAS 39 rules, some differences to the classification and measurement of financial assets under IAS 39 are expected.
The classification and measurement of financial liabilities remain largely unchanged under IFRS 9 from current requirements. However, where issued debt liabilities are designated at fair value, the fair value movements attributable to an entity’s own credit risk will be recognized in Other Comprehensive Income rather than in the Statement of Income under IFRS 9.
Impairment of financial assets
The impairment rules under IFRS 9 will apply to financial assets that are measured at amortized cost or FVOCI, and off-balance sheet lending commitments such as loan commitments and financial guarantees. Impairment will move from a model whereby credit losses are recognized when a ‘trigger’ event occurs under IAS 39 to an expected loss model, where provisions are taken upon initial recognition of the financial asset (or the date that the Group becomes a party to the loan commitment or financial guarantee) based on expectations of potential credit losses at that time.
The allowance for credit losses provided for on initial recognition will be based on a 12-month expected credit loss basis. Subsequently, at each reporting date, the Group must make an assessment on whether the credit risk of the instrument has increased significantly, in which case, the allowance must reflect the expected credit loss of the financial asset over its lifetime (‘lifetime expected losses’). As a result of the changes to the impairment rules, IFRS 9 will result in an increase in subjectivity as allowances will be based on forward-looking, probability-weighted information that is continuously monitored and updated over the life of the financial asset. This is in contrast to impairment recognition under IAS 39 which requires the occurrence of one or more loss events before an allowance is recorded. IFRS 9 is expected to result in an increase in the overall level of impairment allowances, due to the requirement to record an allowance equal to 12-month expected credit losses on those instruments whose credit risk has not significantly increased since initial recognition and the likelihood that there will be a larger population of financial assets to which lifetime expected losses applies as compared to the population of financial assets for which loss events have already occurred under IAS 39.
IFRS 9 also incorporates new hedge accounting rules that intend to align hedge accounting with risk management practices. Generally, some restrictions under current rules have been removed and a greater variety of hedging instruments and hedged items become available for hedge accounting.
IFRS 9 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018. The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 9. The standard has yet to be endorsed by the EU.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
In May 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 15, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, which specifies how and when revenue is recognized, but does not impact income recognition related to financial instruments in scope of IFRS 9/IAS 39. IFRS 15 replaces several other IFRS standards and interpretations that currently govern revenue recognition under IFRS and provides a single, principles-based five-step model to be applied to all contracts with customers. The standard also requires entities to provide users of financial statements with more informative and relevant disclosures. IFRS 15 will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2017. The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 15. The standard has yet to be endorsed by the EU.
Improvements to IFRS 2012-2014 Cycles
In September 2014, the IASB issued amendments to multiple IFRS standards, which resulted from the IASB’s annual improvement project for the 2012-2014 cycles. This comprises amendments that result in accounting changes for presentation, recognition or measurement purposes as well as terminology or editorial amendments related to a variety of individual IFRS standards. The amendments will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016, with earlier application permitted. The group is currently assessing the impact that the amendments will have on the Group’s consolidated financial statements. The amendments have yet to be endorsed by the EU.
In December 2014, the IASB issued amendments to IAS 1 “Presentation of Financial Statements” as part of an initiative to improve presentation and disclosure in financial reports. These amendments clarify that the principle of materiality is applicable to the whole of the financial statements, professional judgment should be applied in determining disclosures and that inclusion of immaterial data can reduce the effectiveness of disclosures. The amendments will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016 with early adoption permitted. The amendments to IAS 1 will only have a disclosure impact on the Group. These amendments have yet to be endorsed by the EU.