Revenue is recognized when the amount of revenue and associated costs can be reliably measured, it is probable that economic benefits associated with the transaction will be realized and the stage of completion of the transaction can be reliably measured. This concept is applied to the key revenue generating activities of the Group as follows.
Net Interest Income – Interest from all interest-bearing assets and liabilities is recognized as net interest income using the effective interest method. The effective interest rate is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or expense over the relevant period using the estimated future cash flows. The estimated future cash flows used in this calculation include those determined by the contractual terms of the asset or liability, all fees that are considered to be integral to the effective interest rate, direct and incremental transaction costs and all other premiums or discounts.
Once an impairment loss has been recognized on a loan or available for sale debt instruments, although the accrual of interest in accordance with the contractual terms of the instrument is discontinued, interest income is recognized based on the rate of interest that was used to discount future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss. For a loan this would be the original effective interest rate, but a new effective interest rate would be established each time an available for sale debt instrument is impaired as impairment is measured to fair value and would be based on a current market rate.
Commissions and Fee Income – The recognition of fee revenue (including commissions) is determined by the purpose of the fees and the basis of accounting for any associated financial instruments. If there is an associated financial instrument, fees that are an integral part of the effective interest rate of that financial instrument are included within the effective yield calculation. However, if the financial instrument is carried at fair value through profit or loss, any associated fees are recognized in profit or loss when the instrument is initially recognized, provided there are no significant unobservable inputs used in determining its fair value. Fees earned from services that are provided over a specified service period are recognized over that service period. Fees earned for the completion of a specific service or significant event are recognized when the service has been completed or the event has occurred.
Loan commitment fees related to commitments that are not accounted for at fair value through profit or loss are recognized in commissions and fee income over the life of the commitment if it is unlikely that the Group will enter into a specific lending arrangement. If it is probable that the Group will enter into a specific lending arrangement, the loan commitment fee is deferred until the origination of a loan and recognized as an adjustment to the loan’s effective interest rate.
Performance-linked fees or fee components are recognized when the performance criteria are fulfilled.
The following fee income is predominantly earned from services that are provided over a period of time: investment fund management fees, fiduciary fees, custodian fees, portfolio and other management and advisory fees, credit-related fees and commission income. Fees predominantly earned from providing transaction-type services include underwriting fees, corporate finance fees and brokerage fees.
Expenses that are directly related and incremental to the generation of fee income are presented net in Commissions and Fee Income.
Arrangements involving multiple services or products – If the Group contracts to provide multiple products, services or rights to a counterparty, an evaluation is made as to whether an overall fee should be allocated to the different components of the arrangement for revenue recognition purposes. Structured trades executed by the Group are the principal example of such arrangements and are assessed on a transaction by transaction basis. The assessment considers the value of items or services delivered to ensure that the Group’s continuing involvement in other aspects of the arrangement are not essential to the items delivered. It also assesses the value of items not yet delivered and, if there is a right of return on delivered items, the probability of future delivery of remaining items or services. If it is determined that it is appropriate to look at the arrangements as separate components, the amounts received are allocated based on the relative value of each component.
If there is no objective and reliable evidence of the value of the delivered item or an individual item is required to be recognized at fair value then the residual method is used. The residual method calculates the amount to be recognized for the delivered component as being the amount remaining after allocating an appropriate amount of revenue to all other components.