The Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in euro, which is the presentation currency of the Group. Various entities in the Group use a different functional currency, being the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates.
An entity records foreign currency revenues, expenses, gains and losses in its functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of recognition.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency are translated at the period end closing rate. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the translation and settlement of these items are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income as net gains (losses) on financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss in order to align the translation amounts with those recognized from foreign currency related transactions (derivatives) which hedge these monetary assets and liabilities.
Nonmonetary items that are measured at historical cost are translated using the historical exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Translation differences on nonmonetary items which are held at fair value through profit or loss are recognized in profit or loss. Translation differences on available for sale nonmonetary items (equity securities) are included in other comprehensive income. Once the available for sale nonmonetary item is sold, the related cumulative translation difference is transferred to the Consolidated Statement of Income as part of the overall gain or loss on sale of the item.
For purposes of translation into the presentation currency, assets, liabilities and equity of foreign operations are translated at the period end closing rate and items of income and expense are translated into euros at the rates prevailing on the dates of the transactions, or average rates of exchange where these approximate actual rates. The exchange differences arising on the translation of a foreign operation are included in other comprehensive income. For foreign operations that are subsidiaries, the amount of exchange differences attributable to any noncontrolling interests is recognized in noncontrolling interests.
Upon disposal of a foreign subsidiary and associate (which results in loss of control or significant influence over that operation) the total cumulative exchange differences recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.
Upon partial disposal of a foreign operation that is a subsidiary and which does not result in loss of control, the proportionate share of cumulative exchange differences is reclassified from other comprehensive income to noncontrolling interests as this is deemed a transaction with equity holders. For a partial disposal of an associate which does not result in a loss of significant influence, the proportionate share of cumulative exchange differences is reclassified from other comprehensive income to profit or loss.