Financial Asset Derecognition
A financial asset is considered for derecognition when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or the Group has either transferred the contractual right to receive the cash flows from that asset, or has assumed an obligation to pay those cash flows to one or more recipients, subject to certain criteria.
The Group derecognizes a transferred financial asset if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
The Group enters into transactions in which it transfers previously recognized financial assets but retains substantially all the associated risks and rewards of those assets; for example, a sale to a third party in which the Group enters into a concurrent total return swap with the same counterparty. These types of transactions are accounted for as secured financing transactions.
In transactions in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a financial asset are neither retained nor transferred, the Group derecognizes the transferred asset if control over that asset is not retained, i.e., if the transferee has the practical ability to sell the transferred asset. The rights and obligations retained in the transfer are recognized separately as assets and liabilities, as appropriate. If control over the asset is retained, the Group continues to recognize the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement, which is determined by the extent to which it remains exposed to changes in the value of the transferred asset.
The derecognition criteria are also applied to the transfer of part of an asset, rather than the asset as a whole, or to a group of similar financial assets in their entirety, when applicable. If transferring a part of an asset, such part must be a specifically identified cash flow, a fully proportionate share of the asset, or a fully proportionate share of a specifically-identified cash flow.
If an existing financial asset is replaced by another asset from the same counterparty on substantially different terms, or if the terms of the financial asset are substantially modified (due to forbearance measures or otherwise), the existing financial asset is derecognized and a new asset is recognized. Any difference between the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
The Group securitizes various consumer and commercial financial assets, which is achieved via the transfer of these assets to a structured entity, which issues securities to investors to finance the acquisition of the assets. Financial assets awaiting securitization are classified and measured as appropriate under the policies in the “Financial Assets and Liabilities” section. If the structured entity is not consolidated then the transferred assets may qualify for derecognition in full or in part, under the policy on derecognition of financial assets. Synthetic securitization structures typically involve derivative financial instruments for which the policies in the “Derivatives and Hedge Accounting” section would apply. Those transfers that do not qualify for derecognition may be reported as secured financing or result in the recognition of continuing involvement liabilities. The investors and the securitization vehicles generally have no recourse to the Group’s other assets in cases where the issuers of the financial assets fail to perform under the original terms of those assets.
Interests in the securitized financial assets may be retained in the form of senior or subordinated tranches, interest only strips or other residual interests (collectively referred to as “retained interests”). Provided the Group’s retained interests do not result in consolidation of a structured entity, nor in continued recognition of the transferred assets, these interests are typically recorded in financial assets at fair value through profit or loss and carried at fair value. Consistent with the valuation of similar financial instruments, the fair value of retained tranches or the financial assets is initially and subsequently determined using market price quotations where available or internal pricing models that utilize variables such as yield curves, prepayment speeds, default rates, loss severity, interest rate volatilities and spreads. The assumptions used for pricing are based on observable transactions in similar securities and are verified by external pricing sources, where available. Where observable transactions in similar securities and other external pricing sources are not available, management judgment must be used to determine fair value. The Group may also periodically hold interests in securitized financial assets and record them at amortized cost.
In situations where the Group has a present obligation (either legal or constructive) to provide financial support to an unconsolidated securitization entity a provision will be created if the obligation can be reliably measured and it is probable that there will be an outflow of economic resources required to settle it.
When an asset is derecognized a gain or loss equal to the difference between the consideration received and the carrying amount of the transferred asset is recorded. When a part of an asset is derecognized, gains or losses on securitization depend in part on the carrying amount of the transferred financial assets, allocated between the financial assets derecognized and the retained interests based on their relative fair values at the date of the transfer.
Derecognition of Financial Liabilities
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. If an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of the existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability, and the difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
Repurchase and Reverse Repurchase Agreements
Securities purchased under resale agreements (“reverse repurchase agreements”) and securities sold under agreements to repurchase (“repurchase agreements”) are treated as collateralized financings and are recognized initially at fair value, being the amount of cash disbursed and received, respectively. The party disbursing the cash takes possession of the securities serving as collateral for the financing and having a market value equal to, or in excess of, the principal amount loaned. The securities received under reverse repurchase agreements and securities delivered under repurchase agreements are not recognized on, or derecognized from, the balance sheet, because the risks and rewards of ownership are not obtained nor relinquished. Securities delivered under repurchase agreements which are not derecognized from the balance sheet and where the counterparty has the right by contract or custom to sell or repledge the collateral are disclosed in Note 22 .
The Group has chosen to apply the fair value option to certain repurchase and reverse repurchase portfolios that are managed on a fair value basis.
Interest earned on reverse repurchase agreements and interest incurred on repurchase agreements is reported as interest income and interest expense, respectively.
Securities Borrowed and Securities Loaned
Securities borrowed transactions generally require the Group to deposit cash with the securities lender. In a securities loaned transaction, the Group generally receives either cash collateral, in an amount equal to or in excess of the market value of securities loaned, or securities. The Group monitors the fair value of securities borrowed and securities loaned and additional collateral is disbursed or obtained, if necessary.
The amount of cash advanced or received is recorded as securities borrowed and securities loaned, respectively, in the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
The securities borrowed are not themselves recognized in the financial statements. If they are sold to third parties, the obligation to return the securities is recorded as a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss and any subsequent gain or loss is included in the Consolidated Statement of Income in net gains (losses) on financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Securities lent to counterparties are also retained on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Fees received or paid are reported in interest income and interest expense, respectively. Securities lent to counterparties which are not derecognized from the Consolidated Balance Sheet and where the counterparty has the right by contract or custom to sell or repledge the collateral are disclosed are disclosed in Note 22 .