Maximum Exposure to Credit Risk increased by € 105 billion or 6 % to € 1.8 trillion compared to December 31, 2013, largely due to increases in positive market values from derivative instruments, primarily related to interest rate and foreign exchange products in the fourth quarter, despite significant activity in trade restructuring and novation to reduce exposure. Credit quality of Maximum Exposure to Credit Risk was 79 % investment-grade rated as of December 31, 2014, slightly increased from 77 % as of December 31, 2013.
Main Credit exposure remained diversified by region, industry and counterparty. Regional exposure is evenly spread across our key markets (North America 31 %, Germany 29 %, Rest of Western Europe 26 %) and the regional distribution has been relatively stable year on year. Our largest industry exposure is to Banks and insurance, which constitutes 25 % of overall gross exposures (i.e., before consideration of collateral), compared to 33 % on December 31, 2013. On a counterparty level, we remained well diversified with our top ten exposures representing 7 % of our total gross main credit exposures compared with 10 % as of December 31, 2013, all with highly rated investment-grade counterparties.
Provision for credit losses in 2014 was € 1.1 billion, down by € 931 million, or 45 % versus 2013 reflecting material reductions in all businesses. The reduction in NCOU was driven by decreased provision for credit losses in IAS39 reclassified and commercial real estate assets. Our core bank benefited from increased releases and a non-recurrence of large single name bookings.
Our overall loan book increased by € 29 billion or 7 %, from € 382 billion as of December 31, 2013 to € 411 billion as of December 31, 2014. Increases were driven by foreign exchange impact, collateral restructuring related to ETF business within CB&S and business growth across CB&S and Deutsche AWM, partly offset by reductions in NCOU. Our single largest loan book category is household mortgages, equating to € 153 billion as of December 31, 2014, thereof € 119 billion in the stable German market. Our corporate loan book, which accounts for 55 % of the total loan book, contained 65 % of loans with an investment-grade rating as of December 31, 2014, slightly increased from 64 % as of December 31, 2013.
The economic capital usage for credit risk increased to € 12.9 billion as of December 31, 2014, compared with € 12.0 billion at year-end 2013 reflecting higher exposures in CB&S and GTB, partly offset by lower exposures in NCOU.
RWA for credit risk has increased by € 41.9 billion or 21 % to € 244 billion since December 31, 2013, largely driven by introducing the new CRR/CRD 4 regulatory framework, the impact from foreign exchange movements and from model refinements, partly offset by reductions from de-risking activities and asset sales, primarily in NCOU.
Market Risk Summary
The average value-at-risk of our trading units was € 51.6 million during 2014, compared with € 53.6 million for 2013. The decrease was driven by lower exposure levels in credit spread risk and commodities risk.
RWA for Market risk has increased by € 17.0 billion or 36 % to € 64.2 billion since December 31, 2013, largely driven by the introduction of the new CRR/CRD 4 regulatory framework which has increased the RWA for trading book securitization exposures within CB&S and changes to our internal Incremental Risk Charge Model.
Nontrading market risk economic capital usage increased by € 1.4 billion or 16 % to € 9.9 billion as of December 31, 2014. The increase was primarily driven by higher structural foreign exchange risk exposure, methodology enhancements for pension risk and increased guaranteed funds risk, partly offset by de-risking activities in NCOU.
The economic capital usage for trading market risk totaled € 5.0 billion as of December 31, 2014, compared with € 4.2 billion at year-end 2013. The increase was primarily driven by increased exposures in fair value banking books.
Operational Risk Summary
The economic capital usage for operational risk increased to € 7.6 billion as of December 31, 2014, compared with € 5.3 billion at year-end 2013. The increase was mainly driven by an early recognition of the impact of model enhancements to our Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) model that were implemented in the second quarter 2014, which initially led to additional economic capital of € 1.1 billion. An additional driver was the increased operational risk loss profile of Deutsche Bank as well as of the industry as a whole. The related operational risk losses that have materialized and given rise to the increased economic capital usage are largely due to the outflows related to litigation, investigations and enforcement actions.
We continue to formally apply the economic capital safety margin to our AMA model, which we first implemented in 2011 to cover unforeseen legal risks. Recently submitted risk sensitive model enhancements aiming to replace the safety margin will lead to a higher amount required for economic capital compared to this safety margin. Management decided to recognize the increment for the first time in the second quarter 2014.
RWA for operational risk increased to € 67.1 billion as of December 31, 2014, compared with € 50.9 billion at year-end 2013. The increase of € 16.2 billion is caused by our early recognition of enhancements to our Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) model in the second quarter of 2014, which initially led to additional RWA of € 7.7 billion. An additional driver was the increased operational risk loss profile of Deutsche Bank as well as of the industry as a whole.
Liquidity Risk Summary
Liquidity reserves amounted to € 184 billion as of December 31, 2014 (compared to € 196 billion as of December 31, 2013). We maintained a positive liquidity stress result as of December 31, 2014 (under the combined scenario).
We raised € 44 billion for the full year 2014 in the capital markets at average spread of 45bps and average tenor of 4.8 years, fully completing our 2014 funding requirements.
76 % of our overall funding came from the funding sources we categorize as the most stable comprising capital markets and equity, retail and transaction banking.
Capital Management Summary
The Common Equity Tier 1 (CET 1, formerly: Core Tier 1) capital ratio, calculated on the basis of CRR/CRD 4 (phase-in rate of 20 %), was 15.2 % as of December 31, 2014, compared with 12.8 % at year-end 2013 based on Basel 2.5. Our pro forma CRR/CRD 4 (phase-in rate of 0 %) CET 1 capital ratio was 14.6 % at year-end 2013.
CET 1 capital according to CRR/CRD 4 increased by € 21.6 billion to € 60.1 billion compared with € 38.5 billion CET 1 capital according to Basel 2.5. The framework change has led to a positive first-day application effect of € 10.4 billion due to the applicable phase-in rate of 20 % for 2014, mainly driven by the treatment of intangible assets of € 9.2 billion. During the transitional period, CRR/CRD 4 allows subtraction of certain CET 1 deductions from Additional Tier 1 capital instead of CET 1 capital, to ease the transition for banks to the “fully-loaded” rules. The remaining € 11.1 billion increase was mainly driven by our capital increase from authorized capital against cash contributions with gross proceeds of € 8.5 billion.
Additional Tier 1 (AT1) capital according to CRR/CRD 4 decreased by € 8.4 billion to € 3.8 billion compared with € 12.2 billion AT1 capital according to Basel 2.5. We had a negative first-day effect from application of CRR/CRD 4 rules of € 12.0 billion, largely reflecting deductions from intangible assets of € 9.2 billion as well as the derecognition of AT1 instruments of € 2.2 billion that no longer qualify as AT1 capital. The first-day effect was partly offset by the issuance of CRR/CRD 4 compliant AT1-Notes of € 4.6 billion.
Tier 2 capital according to CRR/CRD 4 decreased by € 0.4 billion to € 4.4 billion compared with € 4.7 billion Tier 2 capital according to Basel 2.5, mainly due to redemptions and amortization adjustments that were partly offset by deduction reliefs from securitizations and significant investments in financial and insurance entities.
RWA according to CRR/CRD 4 increased by € 96 billion to € 397 billion as of December 31, 2014, compared with € 300 billion at year-end 2013 based on Basel 2.5. Our pro forma CRR/CRD 4 RWA were € 355 billion at year-end 2013. The RWA increase is mainly reflecting the impact from the CRR/CRD 4 framework including RWA for CVA, higher operational risk RWA and credit risk RWA including the impact from foreign exchange movements. That was partly offset by de-risking and asset sales.
The internal capital adequacy ratio increased to 177 % as of December 31, 2014, compared with 165 % as of December 31, 2013.
The CRR/CRD 4 fully loaded Common Equity Tier 1 ratio significantly improved in 2014 from pro forma 9.7 % as of December 31, 2013 to 11.7 % as of December 31, 2014. The 199 basis points ratio increase was driven by an approximate 250 basis points increase resulting from our issue of common shares in the second quarter of 2014 partially offset by higher risk-weighted assets.
Balance Sheet Management Summary
As of December 31, 2014, our fully loaded CRR/CRD 4 leverage ratio under revised rules, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, was 3.5 % compared to our pro forma CRR/CRD 4 leverage ratio (not taking into account recent revisions to the leverage ratio rules) of 2.4 % as of December 31, 2013, taking into account a fully loaded Tier 1 capital of € 50.7 billion over an applicable exposure measure of € 1,445 billion (€ 34.0 billion and € 1,445 billion as of December 31, 2013, respectively).