The vast majority of our businesses are subject to market risk, defined as the potential for change in the market value of our trading and invested positions. Risk can arise from changes in interest rates, credit spreads, foreign exchange rates, equity prices, commodity prices and other relevant parameters, such as market volatility and market implied default probabilities.
The primary objective of Market Risk Management, a part of our independent Risk function, is to ensure that our business units optimize the risk-reward relationship and do not expose us to unacceptable losses outside of our risk appetite. To achieve this objective, Market Risk Management works closely together with risk takers (“the business units”) and other control and support groups.
We distinguish between three substantially different types of market risk:
- Trading market risk arises primarily through the market-making activities of the CB&S Division. This involves taking positions in debt, equity, foreign exchange, other securities and commodities as well as in equivalent derivatives.
- Traded default risk arising from defaults and rating migrations relating to trading instruments.
- Nontrading market risk arises from market movements, primarily outside the activities of our trading units, in our banking book and from off-balance sheet items. This includes interest rate risk, credit spread risk, investment risk and foreign exchange risk as well as market risk arising from our pension schemes, guaranteed funds and equity compensation. Nontrading market risk also includes risk from the modeling of client deposits as well as savings and loan products.
Market Risk Management Framework
Market Risk Management governance is designed and established to promote oversight of all market risks, including trading market risk, traded default risk and nontrading market risk, effective decision-making and timely escalation to senior management.
Market Risk Management defines and implements a framework to systematically identify, assess, monitor and report our market risk and supports management and mitigation. Market risk managers identify market risks through active portfolio analysis and engagement with the business areas.