Property and Equipment

Property and equipment includes own-use properties, leasehold improvements, furniture and equipment and software (operating systems only). Own-use properties are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Depreciation is generally recognized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The range of estimated useful lives is 25 to 50 years for property and 3 to 10 years for furniture and equipment (including initial improvements to purchased buildings). Leasehold improvements are capitalized and subsequently depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the term of the lease and the estimated useful life of the improvement, which generally ranges from 3 to 10 years. Depreciation of property and equipment is included in general and administrative expenses. Maintenance and repairs are also charged to general and administrative expenses. Gains and losses on disposals are included in other income.

Property and equipment are tested for impairment at each quarterly reporting date and an impairment charge is recorded to the extent the recoverable amount, which is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use, is less than its carrying amount. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the asset. After the recognition of impairment of an asset, the depreciation charge is adjusted in future periods to reflect the asset’s revised carrying amount. If an impairment is later reversed, the depreciation charge is adjusted prospectively.

Properties leased under a finance lease are capitalized as assets in property and equipment and depreciated over the terms of the leases.

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