Principles of Consolidation

The financial information in the Consolidated Financial Statements includes the parent company, Deutsche Bank AG, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including certain structured entities presented as a single economic unit.


The Group’s subsidiaries are those entities which it directly or indirectly controls. Control over an entity is evidenced by the Group’s ability to exercise its power in order to affect any variable returns that the Group is exposed to through its involvement with the entity.

The Group sponsors the formation of structured entities and interacts with structured entities sponsored by third parties for a variety of reasons, including allowing clients to hold investments in separate legal entities, allowing clients to invest jointly in alternative assets, for asset securitization transactions, and for buying or selling credit protection.

When assessing whether to consolidate an entity, the Group evaluates a range of control factors, namely:

  • the purpose and design of the entity
  • the relevant activities and how these are determined
  • whether the Group’s rights result in the ability to direct the relevant activities
  • whether the Group has exposure or rights to variable returns
  • whether the Group has the ability to use its power to affect the amount of its returns

Where voting rights are relevant, the Group is deemed to have control where it holds, directly or indirectly, more than half of the voting rights over an entity unless there is evidence that another investor has the practical ability to unilaterally direct the relevant activities, as indicated by one or more of the following factors:

  • Another investor has the power over more than half of the voting rights by virtue of an agreement with the Group; or
  • Another investor has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of the investee under a statute or an agreement; or
  • Another investor has the power to appoint or remove the majority of the members of the board of directors or equivalent governing body and the investee is controlled by that board or body; or
  • Another investor has the power to cast the majority of votes at meetings of the board of directors or equivalent governing body and control of that entity is by this board or body.

Potential voting rights that are deemed to be substantive are also considered when assessing control.

Likewise, the Group also assesses existence of control where it does not control the majority of the voting power but has the practical ability to unilaterally direct the relevant activities. This may arise in circumstances where the size and dispersion of holdings of the shareholders give the Group the power to direct the activities of the investee.

Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group and are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases.

The Group reassesses the consolidation status at least at every quarterly reporting date. Therefore, any changes in the structure leading to a change in one or more of the control factors, require reassessment when they occur. This includes changes in decision making rights, changes in contractual arrangements, changes in the financing, ownership or capital structure as well as changes following a trigger event which was anticipated in the original documentation.

All intercompany transactions, balances and unrealized gains on transactions between Group companies are eliminated on consolidation.

Consistent accounting policies are applied throughout the Group for the purposes of consolidation. Issuances of a subsidiary’s stock to third parties are treated as noncontrolling interests. Profit or loss attributable to noncontrolling interests are reported separately in the Consolidated Statement of Income and Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income.

At the date that control of a subsidiary is lost, the Group a) derecognizes the assets (including attributable goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary at their carrying amounts, b) derecognizes the carrying amount of any noncontrolling interests in the former subsidiary (including any components in accumulated other comprehensive income attributable to them), c) recognizes the fair value of the consideration received and any distribution of the shares of the subsidiary, d) recognizes any investment retained in the former subsidiary at its fair value and e) recognizes any resulting difference of the above items as a gain or loss in the income statement. Any amounts recognized in prior periods in other comprehensive income in relation to that subsidiary would be reclassified to the Consolidated Statement of Income or transferred directly to retained earnings if required by other IFRSs.


An associate is an entity in which the Group has significant influence, but not a controlling interest, over the operating and financial management policy decisions of the entity. Significant influence is generally presumed when the Group holds between 20 % and 50 % of the voting rights. The existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are considered in assessing whether the Group has significant influence. Among the other factors that are considered in determining whether the Group has significant influence are representation on the board of directors (supervisory board in the case of German stock corporations) and material intercompany transactions. The existence of these factors could require the application of the equity method of accounting for a particular investment even though the Group’s investment is less than 20 % of the voting stock.

Investments in associates are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. The Group’s share of the results of associates is adjusted to conform to the accounting policies of the Group and are reported in the Consolidated Statement of Income as Net income (loss) from equity method investments. The Group’s share in the associate’s profits and losses resulting from intercompany sales is eliminated on consolidation.

If the Group previously held an equity interest in an entity (for example, as available for sale) and subsequently gained significant influence, the previously held equity interest is remeasured to fair value and any gain or loss is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income. Any amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income associated with the equity interest would be reclassified to the Consolidated Statement of Income at the date the Group gains significant influence, as if the Group had disposed of the previously held equity interest.

Under the equity method of accounting, the Group’s investments in associates and jointly controlled entities are initially recorded at cost including any directly related transaction costs incurred in acquiring the associate, and subsequently increased (or decreased) to reflect both the Group’s pro-rata share of the post-acquisition net income (or loss) of the associate or jointly controlled entity and other movements included directly in the equity of the associate or jointly controlled entity. Goodwill arising on the acquisition of an associate or a jointly controlled entity is included in the carrying value of the investment (net of any accumulated impairment loss). As goodwill is not reported separately it is not specifically tested for impairment. Rather, the entire equity method investment is tested for impairment.

At the date that the Group ceases to have significant influence over the associate or jointly controlled entity the Group recognizes a gain or loss on the disposal of the equity method investment equal to the difference between the sum of the fair value of any retained investment and the proceeds from disposing of the associate and the carrying amount of the investment. Amounts recognized in prior periods in other comprehensive income in relation to the associate are accounted for on the same basis as would have been required if the investee had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.

At each balance sheet date, the Group assesses whether there is any objective evidence that the investment in an associate is impaired. If there is objective evidence of impairment, an impairment test is performed by comparing the investment’s recoverable amount, which is the higher of its value in use and fair value less costs to sell, with its carrying amount. An impairment loss recognized in prior periods is only reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the investment’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. If this is the case the carrying amount of the investment is increased to its higher recoverable amount.

Critical Accounting Estimates: As the assessment of whether there is objective evidence of impairment may require significant management judgement and the estimates for impairment could change from period to period based on future events that may or may not occur, the Group considers this to be a critical accounting estimate.