Derivatives are used to manage exposures to interest rate, foreign currency, credit and other market price risks, including exposures arising from forecast transactions. All freestanding contracts that are considered derivatives for accounting purposes are carried at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheet regardless of whether they are held for trading or nontrading purposes.
The changes in fair value on derivatives held for trading are included in net gains (losses) on financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss.
Some hybrid contracts contain both a derivative and a non-derivative component. In such cases, the derivative component is termed an embedded derivative, with the non-derivative component representing the host contract. If the economic characteristics and risks of embedded derivatives are not closely related to those of the host contract and the hybrid contract itself is not carried at fair value through profit or loss, the embedded derivative is bifurcated and reported at fair value, with gains and losses recognized in net gains (losses) on financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. The host contract will continue to be accounted for in accordance with the appropriate accounting standard. The carrying amount of an embedded derivative is reported in the same Consolidated Balance Sheet line item as the host contract. Certain hybrid instruments have been designated at fair value through profit or loss using the fair value option.
For accounting purposes there are three possible types of hedges: (1) hedges of changes in the fair value of assets, liabilities or unrecognized firm commitments (fair value hedges); (2) hedges of the variability of future cash flows from highly probable forecast transactions and floating rate assets and liabilities (cash flow hedges); and (3) hedges of the translation adjustments resulting from translating the functional currency financial statements of foreign operations into the presentation currency of the parent (hedges of net investments in foreign operations).
When hedge accounting is applied, the Group designates and documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedging transactions and the nature of the risk being hedged. This documentation includes a description of how the Group will assess the hedging instrument’s effectiveness in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Hedge effectiveness is assessed at inception and throughout the term of each hedging relationship. Hedge effectiveness is always assessed, even when the terms of the derivative and hedged item are matched.
Hedging derivatives are reported as other assets and other liabilities. In the event that a derivative is subsequently de-designated from a hedging relationship, it is transferred to financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss.
For hedges of changes in fair value, the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset, liability or unrecognized firm commitment, or a portion thereof, attributable to the risk being hedged, are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income along with changes in the entire fair value of the derivative. When hedging interest rate risk, any interest accrued or paid on both the derivative and the hedged item is reported in interest income or expense and the unrealized gains and losses from the hedge accounting fair value adjustments are reported in other income. When hedging the foreign exchange risk of an AFS security, the fair value adjustments related to the security’s foreign exchange exposures are also recorded in other income. Hedge ineffectiveness is reported in other income and is measured as the net effect of changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument and changes in the fair value of the hedged item arising from changes in the market rate or price related to the risk(s) being hedged.
If a fair value hedge of a debt instrument is discontinued prior to the instrument’s maturity because the derivative is terminated or the relationship is de-designated, any remaining interest rate-related fair value adjustments made to the carrying amount of the debt instrument (basis adjustments) are amortized to interest income or expense over the remaining term of the original hedging relationship. For other types of fair value adjustments and whenever a fair value hedged asset or liability is sold or otherwise derecognized, any basis adjustments are included in the calculation of the gain or loss on derecognition.
For hedges of variability in future cash flows, there is no change to the accounting for the hedged item and the derivative is carried at fair value, with changes in value reported initially in other comprehensive income to the extent the hedge is effective. These amounts initially recorded in other comprehensive income are subsequently reclassified into the Consolidated Statement of Income in the same periods during which the forecast transaction affects the Consolidated Statement of Income. Thus, for hedges of interest rate risk, the amounts are amortized into interest income or expense at the same time as the interest is accrued on the hedged transaction.
Hedge ineffectiveness is recorded in other income and is measured as changes in the excess (if any) in the absolute cumulative change in fair value of the actual hedging derivative over the absolute cumulative change in the fair value of the hypothetically perfect hedge.
When hedges of variability in cash flows attributable to interest rate risk are discontinued, amounts remaining in accumulated other comprehensive income are amortized to interest income or expense over the remaining life of the original hedge relationship, unless the hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur in which case the amount will be reclassified into other income immediately. When hedges of variability in cash flows attributable to other risks are discontinued, the related amounts in accumulated other comprehensive income are reclassified into either the same Consolidated Statement of Income caption and period as profit or loss from the forecast transaction, or into other income when the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur.
For hedges of the translation adjustments resulting from translating the functional currency financial statements of foreign operations (hedges of net investments in foreign operations) into the functional currency of the parent, the portion of the change in fair value of the derivative due to changes in the spot foreign exchange rates is recorded as a foreign currency translation adjustment in other comprehensive income to the extent the hedge is effective; the remainder is recorded as other income in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
Changes in fair value of the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge are subsequently recognized in profit or loss on disposal of the foreign operations.