Business Combinations and Noncontrolling Interests

The Group uses the acquisition method to account for business combinations. At the date the Group obtains control of the subsidiary, the cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the consideration given, including any cash or non cash consideration (equity instruments) transferred, any contingent consideration, any previously held equity interest in the acquiree and liabilities incurred or assumed. The excess of the aggregate of the cost of an acquisition and any noncontrolling interests in the acquiree over the Group’s share of the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If the aggregate of the acquisition cost and any noncontrolling interests is below the fair value of the identifiable net assets (negative goodwill), a gain is reported in other income. Acquisition-related costs are recognized as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.

In business combinations achieved in stages (“step acquisitions”), a previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to its acquisition-date fair value and the resulting gain or loss, if any, is recognized in profit or loss. Amounts recognized in prior periods in other comprehensive income associated with the previously held investment would be recognized on the same basis as would be required if the Group had directly disposed of the previously held equity interest.

Noncontrolling interests are shown in the consolidated balance sheet as a separate component of equity, which is distinct from the Group’s shareholders’ equity. The net income attributable to noncontrolling interests is separately disclosed on the face of the consolidated statement of income. Changes in the ownership interest in subsidiaries which do not result in a change of control are treated as transactions between equity holders and are reported in additional paid-in capital (“APIC”).