Total equity increased by € 726 million between 2012 and 2013. The main factors contributing to this development were a capital increase of € 3.0 billion from the issuance of 90 million new common shares on April 30, 2013 and a net income attributable to Deutsche Bank shareholders of € 666 million. Partly offsetting were negative effects from exchange rate changes of € 1.1 billion mainly related to the U.S. dollar, cash dividends paid to Deutsche Bank shareholders of € 764 million and remeasurement losses related to defined benefit plans of € 659 million, which are reported in retained earnings as well as a negative net change in share awards of € 385 million in additional paid-in capital.
The calculation of our regulatory capital as of December 31, 2013 is based on the “Basel 2.5” framework. Our total regulatory capital (Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital) reported under Basel 2.5 was € 55.5 billion at the end of 2013 compared to € 57.0 billion at the end of 2012. Tier 1 capital increased to € 50.7 billion at the end of 2013 versus € 50.5 billion at the end of 2012. As of December 31, 2013, Common Equity Tier 1 (formerly referred to as Core Tier 1) capital increased to € 38.5 billion from € 38.0 billion at the end of 2012. The increase in Common Equity Tier 1 capital primarily resulted from the aggregate gross proceeds of our share issuance on April 30, 2013 partly offset by cumulative currency translation effects and re-measurement effects related to defined benefit plans, net of tax.