Provisions are recognized if the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, if it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation as of the balance sheet date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted and measured at the present value of the expenditure expected to be required to settle the obligation, using a pre-tax rate that reflects the current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the obligation. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as interest expense.

When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party (for example, because the obligation is covered by an insurance policy), an asset is recognized if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received.

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