Deutsche Bank Aktiengesellschaft (“Deutsche Bank” or the “Parent”) is a stock corporation organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany. Deutsche Bank together with all entities in which Deutsche Bank has a controlling financial interest (the “Group”) is a global provider of a full range of corporate and investment banking, private clients and asset management products and services. For a discussion of the Group’s business segment information, see Note 05 .
The accompanying consolidated financial statements are stated in euros, the presentation currency of the Group. All financial information presented in million euros has been rounded to the nearest million. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and endorsed by the European Union (“EU”). The Group’s application of IFRS results in no differences between IFRS as issued by the IASB and IFRS as endorsed by the EU.
Risk disclosures under IFRS 7, “Financial Instruments: Disclosures” about the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments are incorporated herein by reference to the portions marked by a bracket in the margins of the Risk Report.
The preparation of financial statements under IFRS requires management to make estimates and assumptions for certain categories of assets and liabilities. Areas where this is required include the fair value of certain financial assets and liabilities, the reclassification of financial assets, the impairment of loans and provision for off-balance-sheet positions, the impairment of other financial assets and non-financial assets, the recognition and measurement of deferred tax assets, and the accounting for legal and regulatory contingencies and uncertain tax positions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from management’s estimates. Refer to Note 02 for a description of the critical accounting estimates and judgments used in the preparation of the financial statements.
Valuation Approach for Collateralized Derivative Contracts
In the second quarter 2011, the Group’s valuation approach for substantially all of its collateralized derivative contracts moved to using the overnight indexed swap (OIS) curve in order to more consistently manage the interest rate and funding risks associated with collateralized derivatives in line with their pricing. This change in approach to OIS did not have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements in 2011.
Assignment of Revenue Components in CIB
The presentation of prior period CIB revenues was adjusted during the first half of 2010 following a review of the assignment of specific revenue components to the product categories. The review resulted in a transfer of negative revenues of € 325 million from Loan Products to Sales & Trading (debt and other products) in 2009. In addition, Sales & Trading (equity) revenues were reduced by € 83 million in 2009, with corresponding offsetting effects in Sales & Trading (debt and other products). These adjustments had no impact on CIB’s total revenues.
Assignment of Revenue Components in PCAM
The presentation of PCAM product revenues was modified in the first quarter 2011 following a review of the assignment of specific revenue components to the product components. In order to facilitate comparability, revenues of € 73 million and € 70 million were transferred from credit products to deposits and payment services in 2010 and 2009, respectively. This adjustment had no impact on PCAM’s total revenues.
In the second quarter 2010, the Group changed the presentation of the fees and net settlements associated with longevity insurance and reinsurance contracts. It was determined that the net presentation of cash flows under individual longevity insurance and reinsurance contracts reflected the actual settlement of those cash flows and therefore better reflected the nature of such contracts. This change in presentation resulted in a transfer of € 102 million of expenses from Other income to Policyholder benefits and claims in 2011, and an amount of € 117 million in 2010.
Software Amortization Periods
Since the second quarter 2010, the Group has applied amortization periods of five or ten years for capitalized costs relating to certain purchased or internally developed software for which prior amortization period was three years. The change did not have a material impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements in the periods presented and also will not have a material impact on future periods.
Allowance for Loan Losses
The Group applies estimates in determining the allowance for loan losses in its homogeneous loan portfolio which use statistical models based on historical experience. On a regular basis the Group performs procedures to align input parameters and model assumptions with historically evidenced loss levels. Alignment of input parameters and model assumptions in 2010 and 2009 led to a lower level of provisions for credit losses of € 28 million and € 145.8 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively. No such alignments were made in 2011.
Change in the Functional Currency of a Significant Operation
On January 1, 2010, the functional currency of Deutsche Bank Aktiengesellschaft, London Branch (“London Branch”) and certain other London-based subsidiaries was changed from pound sterling to euro.
These entities’ functional currency had previously been determined to be pound sterling on the basis that the currency of their primary economic environment was based on pound sterling. However during 2009 it was determined that the London Branch’s operating environment, mix of business and balance sheet composition had gradually changed over time. To better reflect this change, London Branch management undertook to manage their operations in euro from January 1, 2010. To implement this decision, procedures were put in place for London Branch to hedge all non-euro exposures, sell profits into euro and report internally in euro.
The effect of the change in functional currency to euro was applied prospectively in these consolidated financial statements. The Group translated all items into the new functional currency using the exchange rate as at January 1, 2010. Exchange differences arising from the translation of the foreign operation previously recorded in other comprehensive income were not reclassified to profit or loss and remain in other comprehensive income until the entities are disposed of or sold.
Significant Accounting Policies
The following is a description of the significant accounting policies of the Group. Other than as previously described, these policies have been consistently applied for 2009, 2010 and 2011.