The Group classifies its financial assets and liabilities into the following categories: financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans, financial assets available for sale (“AFS”) and other financial liabilities. The Group does not classify any financial instruments under the held-to-maturity category. Appropriate classification of financial assets and liabilities is determined at the time of initial recognition or when reclassified in the balance sheet.
Financial instruments classified at fair value through profit or loss and financial assets classified as AFS are recognized on trade date, which is the date on which the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset or issue or repurchase the financial liability. All other financial instruments are recognized on a settlement date basis.
Financial Assets and Liabilities at Fair Value through Profit or Loss
The Group classifies certain financial assets and financial liabilities as either held for trading or designated at fair value through profit or loss. They are carried at fair value and presented as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, respectively. Related realized and unrealized gains and losses are included in net gains (losses) on financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Interest on interest earning assets such as trading loans and debt securities and dividends on equity instruments are presented in interest and similar income for financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss.
Trading Assets and Liabilities – Financial instruments are classified as held for trading if they have been originated, acquired or incurred principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing them in the near term, or they form part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that are managed together and for which there is evidence of a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking.
Financial Instruments Designated at Fair Value through Profit or Loss – Certain financial assets and liabilities that do not meet the definition of trading assets and liabilities are designated at fair value through profit or loss using the fair value option. To be designated at fair value through profit or loss, financial assets and liabilities must meet one of the following criteria: (1) the designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency; (2) a group of financial assets or liabilities or both is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy; or (3) the instrument contains one or more embedded derivatives unless: (a) the embedded derivative does not significantly modify the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract; or (b) it is clear with little or no analysis that separation is prohibited. In addition, the Group allows the fair value option to be designated only for those financial instruments for which a reliable estimate of fair value can be obtained.
Certain loan commitments are designated at fair value through profit or loss under the fair value option. As indicated under the discussion of ‘Derivatives and Hedge Accounting’, some loan commitments are classified as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. All other loan commitments remain off-balance sheet. Therefore, the Group does not recognize and measure changes in fair value of these off-balance sheet loan commitments that result from changes in market interest rates or credit spreads. However, as specified in the discussion “Impairment of loans and provision for off-balance sheet positions” below, these off-balance sheet loan commitments are assessed for impairment individually and, where appropriate, collectively.
Loans include originated and purchased non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market and which are not classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss or financial assets available for sale. An active market exists when quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service or regulatory agency and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm’s length basis.
Loans are initially recognized at fair value. When the loan is issued at a market rate, fair value is represented by the cash advanced to the borrower plus the net of direct and incremental transaction costs and fees. They are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method less impairment.
Financial Assets Classified as Available for Sale
Financial assets that are not classified as at fair value through profit or loss or as loans are classified as AFS. A financial asset classified as AFS is initially recognized at its fair value plus transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. The amortization of premiums and accretion of discount are recorded in net interest income. Financial assets classified as AFS are carried at fair value with the changes in fair value reported in equity, in net gains (losses) not recognized in the income statement, unless the asset is subject to a fair value hedge, in which case changes in fair value resulting from the risk being hedged are recorded in other income. For monetary financial assets classified as AFS (for example, debt instruments), changes in carrying amounts relating to changes in foreign exchange rate are recognized in the income statement and other changes in carrying amount are recognized in equity as indicated above. For financial assets classified as AFS that are not monetary items (for example, equity instruments), the gain or loss that is recognized in equity includes any related foreign exchange component.
Financial assets classified as AFS are assessed for impairment as discussed in the section of this Note “Impairment of financial assets classified as Available for Sale”. Realized gains and losses are reported in net gains (losses) on financial assets available for sale. Generally, the weighted-average cost method is used to determine the cost of financial assets. Gains and losses recorded in equity are transferred to the income statement on disposal of an available for sale asset and reported in net gains (losses) on financial assets available for sale.
Except for financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method.
Financial liabilities include long-term and short-term debt issued which are initially measured at fair value, which is the consideration received, net of transaction costs incurred. Repurchases of issued debt in the market are treated as extinguishments and any related gain or loss is recorded in the consolidated statement of income. A subsequent sale of own bonds in the market is treated as a reissuance of debt.
Reclassification of Financial Assets
The Group may reclassify certain financial assets out of the financial assets at fair value through profit or loss classification (trading assets) and the available for sale classification into the loans classification. For assets to be reclassified there must be a clear change in management intent with respect to the assets since initial recognition and the financial asset must meet the definition of a loan at the reclassification date. Additionally, there must be an intent and ability to hold the asset for the foreseeable future at the reclassification date. There is no single specific period that defines foreseeable future. Rather, it is a matter requiring management judgment. In exercising this judgment, the Group established the following minimum guideline for what constitutes foreseeable future. At the time of reclassification, there must be:
- no intent to dispose of the asset through sale or securitization within one year and no internal or external requirement that would restrict the Group’s ability to hold or require sale; and
- the business plan going forward should not be to profit from short-term movements in price.
Financial assets proposed for reclassification which meet these criteria are considered based on the facts and circumstances of each financial asset under consideration. A positive management assertion is required after taking into account the ability and plausibility to execute the strategy to hold.
In addition to the above criteria the Group also requires that persuasive evidence exists to assert that the expected repayment of the asset exceeds the estimated fair value and the returns on the asset will be optimized by holding it for the foreseeable future.
Financial assets are reclassified at their fair value at the reclassification date. Any gain or loss already recognized in the income statement is not reversed. The fair value of the instrument at reclassification date becomes the new amortized cost of the instrument. The expected cash flows on the financial instruments are estimated at the reclassification date and these estimates are used to calculate a new effective interest rate for the instruments. If there is a subsequent increase in expected future cash flows on reclassified assets as a result of increased recoverability, the effect of that increase is recognized as an adjustment to the effective interest rate from the date of the change in estimate rather than as an adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset at the date of the change in estimate. If there is a subsequent decrease in expected future cash flows the asset would be assessed for impairment as discussed in the section of this Note "Impairment of Loans and Provision for Off-Balance Sheet Positions". Any change in the timing of the cash flows of reclassified assets which are not deemed impaired are recorded as an adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset.
For instruments reclassified from available for sale to loans and receivables any unrealized gain or loss recognized in shareholders’ equity is subsequently amortized into interest income using the effective interest rate of the instrument. If the instrument is subsequently impaired any unrealized loss which is held in shareholders’ equity for that instrument at that date is immediately recognized in the income statement as a loan loss provision.
To the extent that assets categorized as loans are repaid, restructured or eventually sold and the amount received is less than the carrying value at that time, then a loss would be recognized.
Determination of Fair Value
Fair value is defined as the price at which an asset or liability could be exchanged in a current transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. The fair value of instruments that are quoted in active markets is determined using the quoted prices where they represent those at which regularly and recently occurring transactions take place. The Group uses valuation techniques to establish the fair value of instruments where prices quoted in active markets are not available. Therefore, where possible, parameter inputs to the valuation techniques are based on observable data derived from prices of relevant instruments traded in an active market. These valuation techniques involve some level of management estimation and judgment, the degree of which will depend on the price transparency for the instrument or market and the instrument’s complexity. Refer to Note Critical Accounting Estimates – Fair Value Estimates – Methods of Determining Fair Value for further discussion of the accounting estimates and judgments required in the determination of fair value.
Recognition of Trade Date Profit
If there are significant unobservable inputs used in the valuation technique, the financial instrument is recognized at the transaction price and any profit implied from the valuation technique at trade date is deferred. Using systematic methods, the deferred amount is recognized over the period between trade date and the date when the market is expected to become observable, or over the life of the trade (whichever is shorter). Such methodology is used because it reflects the changing economic and risk profile of the instrument as the market develops or as the instrument itself progresses to maturity. Any remaining trade date deferred profit is recognized in the income statement when the transaction becomes observable or the Group enters into off-setting transactions that substantially eliminate the instrument’s risk. In the rare circumstances that a trade date loss arises, it would be recognized at inception of the transaction to the extent that it is probable that a loss has been incurred and a reliable estimate of the loss amount can be made. Refer to Note Critical Accounting Estimates – Fair Value Estimates – Methods of Determining Fair Value for further discussion of the estimates and judgments required in assessing observability of inputs and risk mitigation.